Hekim Ismail Pasha is an Ottoman statesman who was born in 1807 or 1812. Ismail Pasha was taken captive from the island of Chios at a young age and sold to a surgeon in Izmir. During his captivity, he received surgical training from his master and became a Muslim. He improved his professional skills during the Ottoman-Russian War of 1828-1829. Later, he enrolled in Cerrahhane-i Mamûre and graduated from there. In 1840 graduating from Mektep-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane and called as "Hekim İsmail Efendi". He was sended to Paris with a group of 13. On his return, he was first appointed to the Hassa Directorate of the Cerrahhane, and then became a Hekimbaşı in 1845. While he was in this position, Ismail Pasha focused primarily on improving medical education. He participated in the Sultan Abdülmecid’s Rumelia trip in 1846 and take part in the smallpox vaccination campaign. And, wrote notable works such as the Risale-i Smallpox and the Risale-i Cholera to fight against epidemics. Hekim İsmail Efendi, who was appointed as the Minister of Nafia in 1848, received the title of "Pasha". During his time, the Ministry of Trade was also affiliated to the Ministry of Nafia. Ismail Pasha was appointed as governor of Izmir in 1853 and Crete in 1861. He was dismissed for his failure in the Cretan Rebellion of 1866. Ismail Pasha, after appointed to many positions, was appointed as the Şehremini of Istanbul in 1874, but was retired due to a stroke. He died in 1880 and buried in tomb of Sultan Mahmut II.


Hekim Ismail Pasha, Medical Education, Ottoman Modernization, Bureaucracy.